The Triassic bivalves Daonella and Halobia in New Zealand, New Caledonia and Svalbard

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Campbell, H.J. 1994 The Triassic bivalves Daonella and Halobia in New Zealand, New Caledonia and Svalbard. Lower Hutt: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences monograph 4; New Zealand Geological Survey paleontological bulletin 66 166 p. + 12 plates

Abstract: New observations and consideration of morphological features of the cosmopolitan Triassic bivalves Daonella and Halobia based on new and pre-existing collections from New Zealand, New Caledonia and Svalbard permit more substantive assessment of paleobiological aspects of these bivalve genera and more rigorous systematic placement. An attached, pendant mode of life is suggested for Daonella and Halobia. The substrate is surmised to have been predominantly sessile marine plant life and therefore largely restricted to shallow marine photic zone environments. A pseudoplanktonic mode of life attached to floating organisms and debris is considered entirely possible but of secondary importance. The cosmopolitan distribution of these bivalves is best explained in terms of long-lived highly vagile larval stages, favourable disposition of land masses and hence coastlines during Triassic time also and favourable physical and biotic sea conditions. A new superfamily Halobioidea superfam. nov. is introduced to accommodate Daonella and Halobia, bivalve forms that possess characters common to the ancestral stock of the Pectinina and Ostreina. The diagnosis is: equivalve, byssate, non-pleurothetic, edentulous, monomyarian Ostreoida with thin shells comprising an inner foliated-calcite layer, a middle inferred aragonite layer, and an outer simple-prismatic calcite layer, ligament amphidetic, of fold type and alivincular with multiple resilifers. This new superfamily includes the family Halobiidae diagnosed as follows: shells grnerally of low convexity with distinctive radially costate ornament and conspicuous comarginal rugae especially in early ontogeny. The family comprises three genera which are distinguished by differentiation of the dorsal areas adjacent to the hinge, anterior and posterior of the beak. The three genera are diagnosed as follows: Daonella - lacking auricles and any obvious shell structure related to emergence of a byssus; ligament area alivincular but with no secondary resilifers. Aparimella gen. nov. - with narrow but distinct auricles, anterior and posterior, which set the hinge off from the disc; no obvious shell structure related to emergence of a byssus. Halobia - with narrow anterior and posterior auricles and an anterior byssal tube. Three subgenera of Halobia are recognised on costation pattern. Eight halobiids are documented from Svalbard: Daonella subarctics Popov, Daonella lindstroemi Mojsisovics, Daonella haraldi sp. nov., Daonella frami Kittl, Daonella degeeri Boehm, Halobia (Zittelihalobia) zitteli Lindstroem, Aparimella rugosoides (Hsu), and Halobia (Halobia) plicosa Mojsisovics. Nine halobiids are recognised from New Zealand. Forms described from Murihiku terrane include: Daonella jadii sp. nov.; Aparimelia apteryx (Marwick); Aparimella beggi gen. et sp. nov.; Halobia (Zittelihalobia) hochstetteri Mojsisovics; Halobia (Zittelihalobia) zealandica Trechmann; Halobia (Halobia) styriaca (Mojsisovics); Halobia (Halobia) hoernesi Mo js.; Halobia (Halobia) musidaca Mojs.; and Halobia (Halobia) plicosa Mojs. Five of the Murihiki terrane forms are recognised in collections from Torlesse terrane. They include Daonella jadii sp. nov., Aparimella beggi gen. et sp. nov., Halobia (Zittelihalobia) hochstetteri and Halobia (H.) austriaca. Two other forms have been recognised from a single Torlesse terrane collection Halobia (Zittelihalobia) superba Mojs. and Halobia (Parahalobia) sp. A. Neither of these has been recorded from the Murikihi terrane. Only three halobiids are recognised from New Caledonia: Daonella jadii sp. nov., Halobia (Zittelihalobia) zealandica Trechmann, and Halobia (Halobia) plicosa Mojsisovics. All but two of the New Zealand and New Caledonian halobiids are cosmopolitan. Six new correlation levels are, established on the basis of halobiid identification. They provide some refinement and precision to age control and correlation of the New Zealand Triassic for Anisian to Norian time. These correlation levels are: 1) Late Ladinian, sutherlandi Zone based on Aparimelia apteryx; 2) topmost Carman, macrolobatus Zone based on Halobia (Halobia) austriaca; 3) earliest Norian, kerri Zone based on Halobia (Halobia) styriaca, and 4) 5) 6) middle Norian, magnum to rutherfordi Zone, based on Halobia (Halobia) hoernesi, Halobia (Halobla) plicosa and Halobia (Zittelihalobia) zealandica. The stratigraphic significance of these halobiid correlations is that much of Ladinian and Carnian time is faunally unrepresented in the New Zealand Triassic succession. Major unconformities are indicated which had previously been recognised but their time significance had been unrealised. (auth)

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