Stevens, G.R. 1965 The Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnites of New Zealand and a review of the Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnites of the Indo-Pacific region. Wellington: New Zealand Geological Survey. New Zealand Geological Survey paleontological bulletin 36 283 p.
Abstract: The New Zealand Jurassic (Toarcian-Tithonian) and Cretaceous (Albian-Maestrichtian) belemnites are described mainly from the collections of the New Zealand Geological Survey. Twenty-five species and subspecies (belonging to the the genera Brachybelus, Cylindroteuthis, Conodicoelites, Belemnopsis, Hibolithes and Dimitobelus) are described, of which 12 are new. Rich Belemnopsis and Hibolithes assemblages are present in the Upper Jurassic of New Zealand, closely related to similar assemblages in the Indo-Pacific region. The Cretaceous belemnite assemblages of New Zealand consist of species of Dimitobelus with purely Australasian relationships. The Upper Jurassic succession at Kawhia Harbour has yielded a well defined sequence of belemnites associated with ammonites (sutdied by Arkell) and stratigraphically important pelecypods (Buchia, Inoceramus). The Kawhia belemnite sequence has been used as a standard for Indo-Pacific correlation. Age revisions for a number of Indonesian belemnite assemblages have been suggested. A review of the Jurassic and Cretaceous belemnites of the Indo-Pacific is presented, based on an analysis of published work and examination of belemnite collections from the region. A summary is given of the world-wide distribution and probable migrations of belemnites, which can best be explained by assuming that they were confined to the shelves: comparisons with the life history and habitat of the present-day squids and studies of the sedimentary environments of the belemnites tend to confirm this assumption. All available evidence favours migration of belemnites along the margins of the Tethyan seaway and isolation of assemblages by disruption of the migratory route, probably by the development of extensive areas of deep water. The New Zealand Jurassic belemnites appear to have been derived from Europe and the Indo-Pacific region. The New Zealand Cretaceous belemnites were shared with Australia and New Guinea, but were probably restricted to the Australasian region. There is no evidence of large-scale migration of New Zealand species into overseas areas. Migration of belemnites across the Pacific to and from North and South America was probably only sporadic. (auth)