Waterhouse, J.B. 1982 New Zealand Permian brachiopod systematics, zonation, and paleoecology. Wellington: DSIR. New Zealand Geological Survey paleontological bulletin 48 158 p.
Abstract: Sixty-five brachiopod species from the NZ Permian are described or revised. New taxa are , and . Additional morphological details are added to previous descriptions of various species, including growth increments. The brachiopod faunas are subdivided into 15 zones, of which 12 are found in sequence in the Takitimu area; each is discussed by content, paleoecology, correlation, and paleoclimate. The faunas showed a series of climatic changes identical with those of the rest of the world. Judged by fauna, North Auckland in the Permian occupied the most northerly position (about 40-45 deg. S). The volcanic arc and inner eugeosynclinal segment of New Zealand, in east Nelson, Southland, and Otago, probably occupied a paleolatitude of about 50-55 deg. S; and west Nelson about 70-80 deg. S. World correlations show that there are several faunal (but probably not lithological) gaps, with the Baisalian substage not represented by brachiopod faunas. The Makarewan fauna is still the youngest known fauna of Permian aspect in NZ, and may be Ogbinan, Griesbachan, or Dienarian in age, the last 2 sometimes classified as Early Triassic. A method is proposed for analysing relative diversities within sequences to detect episodic changes in brachiopod diversities that probably reflected climatic changes, against a background of changes in lithotype and water depth. The resulting curves form a distinctive `faunal signature' which may prove useful as a means of correlation. Within limits set by salinity and depth, the distribution of brachiopod communities was controlled primarily by temperature. Lithofacies was less significant, but affected members of the Terebratulida and perhaps the Strophomenida. (auth/EKS)