Campbell, H.J.; Christie, A.B.; Hatton, B.; Medd, L.; Smith, N.; Ward, B.L.; Kermode, L.O.; Brown, L.J. 1994 Sheet QM322 Napier : geological resource map of New Zealand 1:250 000 . Lower Hutt: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences science report 94/26 40 p.
Abstract: Current mineral production in the area included in Sheet QM322 Napier is essentially confined to extraction of gravel and quarrying of greywacke for building aggregate and roading materials, and quarrying of limestone for agricultural lime and road metal. Resources for potential future production are very large. Non-metallic minerals and rocks of lesser importance include pumice, bentonite, sand, garnet sand, and clay. Metallic mineral deposits include minor copper, manganese, gold, and silver. Gas and oil seeps, some associated with hot water or sulphur, are widely distributed, primarily in the coastal sedimentary basins filled with Cretaceous-Cenozoic rocks. Six oil exploration wells have been drilled in the area, though none produced oil or gas in commercial quantities. Tokaanu-Waihi geothermal field and several hot springs, associated with volcanic rocks in the northwestern corner of the map area, are used by the tourism industry for recreational bathing. Hot springs are also present on the eastern margin of the block-faulted axial mountain range, and are fed by deep percolating groundwater within fault zones. Groundwater aquifer systems underlying the Wairarapa, Ruataniwha-Takapau, Heretaunga, and Manawatu plains are an important source of water for city (Napier and Hastings), town, industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. Individual wells tapping these aquifers yield up to 6500 m3/day. (auths)