Graham, I.J. 1996 Estimation of production rates for in-situ cosmogenic isotopes and application to surface exposure dating : certitudes and uncertainties . Lower Hutt: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences science report 96/14 42 p.
Abstract: Cosmogenic nuclides, produced in-situ in rocks by the action of cosmic rays on target nuclei, are increasingly being employed by earth scientists in a wide variety of applications. For example, surface exposure dating is used to determine erosion rates, the age of debris flows, alluvial fans, volcanic eruptions, meteoritic impact craters, and glacial deposits, and the timing of recent movement along faults and tectonic uplift. The technique can thus play a vital role in the study of potential hazards from geological processes, by establishing recurrence intervals between them, and establish chronologies and periodicities for major paleoclimatic events. Before surface exposure dating methods using cosmogenic isotopes can be applied even more widely, production rates of the main nuclides of interest must be better known, and their temporal and spatial variabilities determined. This paper summarises the present state of knowledge on production rates of the currently most useful nuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 14C, 3He and 21Ne), discusses the main areas of concern, and makes suggestions for future improvement. (auth)