Rosenberg, M.D. 2000 The Whakapapaiti lahar : a snow-rich debris flow from the 23rd September 1995 eruption of Mt Ruapehu. Lower Hutt: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences science report 2000/30 34 p.
Abstract: The 23rd September 1995 eruption of Mt Ruapehu was a shallow-seated phreatomagmatic explosion produced by the intrusion of andesitic magma into the vent-hosted hydrothermal system beneath the Crater Lake. The short-lived eruption ejected highly acidic Crater Lake water and rock and ice debris at least 1 km from vent and generated lahars in the Mangaturuturu, Whangaehu, and Whakapapaiti valleys. The Whakapapaiti lahar was an unusual type of debris flow, containing a large volume of snow and ice entrained from its two channels on the upper slopes of the mountain. The ca. 90,000 m3 deposit formed two lobes, each about 2 km long, 10-70 m wide and less that 1.5 m thick. (auth)