Kennedy, J.V.; Trompetter, W.J.; Markwitz, A. 2005 Elemental analysis of ion implanted nanomaterials . Lower Hutt: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences science report 2005/23 20 p.
Abstract: Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques have proved to be very useful for the quantitative determination of the bulk composition and of the concentration of implanted ions in sapphire and zinc oxide. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) measurements were used to reveal implanted Fe, N and H concentrations. The IBA results are complemented by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) results obtained on implanted and electron beam annealed samples. For the Fe implanted sapphire, depending on the fluence, small features appear at the surfaces that become larger with increasing Fe concentration. Features with diameters of about 30 nm were found in the implanted (F=1x1016 ions cm-2) and annealed (T=700 °C, t=10 min) samples. The formation of such features suggests that iron diffuses preferentially parallel to the c-plane. The elemental content of the features is currently under investigation. For the N implanted sapphire, the surface of the lowest dose (1x1016 ions cm-2) sample presented some nanofeatures with a trianglular-shaped base whereas the highest dose (1x1017 ions cm-2) nitrogen implanted and electron beam annealed sample had wide deep holes. In the H implanted ZnO samples, it was found that around 4 at.% hydrogen has been incorporated at the depth level of 220 nm. This report demonstrates that the ion beam analysis techniques of RBS, PIXE, NRA and ERDA can be used for the establishment of an implantation protocol into the oxide materials. (auth)