Kennedy, J.V.; Pithie, J.; Markwitz, A. 2007 Characterisation of the first series of ZnO thin films produced by ion beam sputtering technique. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2007/20 34 p.
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on Si, glass, glassy carbon and SiO2-Si substrates by ion beam sputtering using zinc and zinc oxide targets,. The ion beam physics based analysis techniques RBS, elastic recoil detection, nuclear reaction analysis and particle induced X-ray emission have been used to quantitatively determine composition, uniformity, impurity and elemental depth profiles of major, minor and trace elements of ZnO thin films. Highly stoichiometric films were produced by sputtering ZnO targets with 15 keV Ar ion beams. XRD and TEM measurements show that the as-deposited ZnO films are of polycrystalline nature. Annealing films under vacuum and in air at 500oC alters the structure significantly to relatively defect-free polycrystalline structure, preferentially oriented to the (100), (002) and (101) orientations. AFM showed that films were very smooth surface. Films were transparent in the visible region. All the ion beam sputtered ZnO films are n-type conductivity. (auth)