Kennedy, J.V.; Murmu, P.; Markwitz, A. 2008 Protocol for magnetic ion implantation into zinc oxide. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2008/24 27 p.
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto various substrates (e.g. Si, SiO2, glass and glassy carbon) by ion beam sputtering. Magnetic ions such as Gd, Fe and Co have been implanted into ZnO single crystals and thin films to investigate the spintronic properties of ZnO material. DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations have been performed to obtain Gd, Fe and Co profiles for the various fluences between 2.3x1014 ions cm-2 and 1.6x1016 ions cm-2 for different energies. The calculations predict a mean projected path of 8-20 nm coupled with a maximum implantation depth of ~ 20-40 nm depending on the fluence and energy of the particular ions. For these fluences, the Gd, Fe and Co peak concentration varies between 0.25 and 21.5 at.%. At fluences larger than 1x1015 ions cm-2, the Gd, Fe and Co profile intersects with the surface. Ion beam analysis techniques have been used to measure depth distribution ion concentrations. It was found that the measured concentrations are very close to the calculated values. RBS channelling has been done to study the incorporation of implanted ions into the lattice sites. (auth)