Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A. 2009 Operation of the 'Frankfurt' electron beam annealer for annealing of implanted materials. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2009/24 40 p.
Abstract: This report provides details for the use of the ‘Frankfurt’ electron beam annealing (EBA) system at GNS Science. The first section of the report introduces the EBA system to the new user. The general use of such annealing systems is briefly discussed followed by an outline of the principle by which the EBA system operates. The components of the EBA system at GNS Science are introduced and their operation in terms of the whole system is placed in context. In the middle section of the report a comprehensive user guide is provided for the novice operator. A detailed set of instructions includes explanations as to why some of the key steps are performed. The final section highlights the use of the EBA system for annealing ion implanted material. Four studies have been chosen to illustrate this. The first reports on the formation of silicon-carbide nanocrystals, named nanoboulders, on the surface of low-energy carbon ion implanted wafer silicon. Secondly, the simultaneous formation of silicon nanowhiskers and silicon-carbide nanoboulders is detailed. The third study reports a method for suppressing silicon nanowhisker growth – with uses in selective patterning of the nanostructures on a surface. Finally, the sub-surface retention of implanted lead in wafer silicon, through a dual sub-surface ion implantation of carbon and lead ions, is reported. The lead is observed to decorate the carbon implantation profile, allowing high temperature annealing well above the melting point of lead. Further, X-ray diffraction studies reveal previously unidentified phases of SixCyPbz. (auth)