Bromley, C.J. 2010 International Energy Agency-Geothermal Implementing Agreement annex 1 (environmental effects) report 2008. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2009/7411 p.
Abstract: The goals of Annex 1 (Environmental Effects) of the IEA-GIA international collaboration agreement are: to encourage the sustainable development of geothermal energy resources in an economic and environmentally responsible manner; to quantify and balance any adverse and beneficial impacts that geothermal energy development may have on the environment, and to identify ways of avoiding, remedying or mitigating adverse effects. Geothermal energy is generally considered to be an environmentally-benign, renewable energy source. It has significant benefits relative to fossil fuels with respect to global carbon-dioxide emissions, and consequential potential for reducing global warming. There remain, however, some local environmental problems associated with its utilization. To further the use of geothermal energy, possible adverse and beneficial environmental effects are identified, and measures devised and adopted to avoid or minimize adverse impacts, while encouraging the benefits. Participants in Annex 1 include: Australia, European Commission, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United States. (auth)