Lind, L. 2012 Patterns of energy use and loss in New Zealand's manufacturing and mining industries. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2011/18 37 p.
Abstract: This study evaluates the energy use and loss patterns of New Zealand’s manufacturing and mining industries. New Zealand’s four largest energy consumer industries: Pulp & Paper Manufacturing, Printing & Publishing (C15-C16); Metal Product Manufacturing (C21); Wood Product Manufacturing (C14); and Food, Beverage and Tobacco Manufacturing (C11-C12) were chosen for separate analysis. Other industries not selected for individual analysis were included in the overall manufacturing energy analysis. New Zealand’s delivered energy in 2007, to manufacturing and mining was 179 PJ being 33% of the total delivered energy in New Zealand. Electricity accounts for the major portion of energy used at about 33%. Wood and wood waste, and natural gas were 20% each, followed by coal (12%) and petroleum products (10%). Energy losses associated with industrial energy use take two forms: offsite and onsite losses. Offsite losses account for about 34% of energy inputs. Overall, about 50% of the energy input to plants is lost inside the plant boundary, prior to use in the intended process. Post-process losses can be substantial, but were not analysed in this report. (auth)