Leonard, G.S.; Evans, N.; Prasetya, G.; Saunders, W.S.A.; Pearse, L.; Monastra, D.; Fraser, S. 2011 Scoping study for evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of New Zealand buildings for use as evacuation structures. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2011/36 36 p.
Abstract: This report scopes out needs and issues for guidance on evaluating the tsunami vulnerability of tsunami evacuation buildings in New Zealand- those specifically designed or designated as places to evacuate to in the event of a tsunami warning. It includes the results of a workshop attended by staff from GNS Science, Hawkes Bay Civil Defence Emergency Management Group, Opus (engineer), Department of Building and Housing, Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management and Napier City Council (building inspector). The outcomes are intended to fit within the context of nationally-consistent tsunami warning, evacuation mapping, planning and signage. Warning and evacuation should be considered in conjunction with other risk mitigation options, especially land use planning. Buildings selected or built for vertical evacuation must also be resistant to any initial earthquake. We briefly review the characteristics of tsunami, overseas tsunami building design and impact examples, tsunami impacts on infrastructure including typical load and force, categories and components of loading, and existing data on these loads. Example of tsunami resilient buildings are given for reinforced concrete, steel framed and timber framed constructions in a variety of countries that have experienced large tsunami. Applications and limitations of tsunami evacuation buildings in New Zealand are discussed in the context of land use planning, emergency management, community issues, building consent, risk reduction, and liability. The specific scope of the Building Act, Building Code and compliance documents to cover different sizes of tsunami for different building types is explored. The application of these documents to both new and existing buildings is considered with possible future options suggested. A range of recommendations for detailed future work are given. These are mostly focussed on development of a New Zealand-specific Standard or technical information and the many aspects that need to be considered. (auth)