Rawlinson, Z. 2013 A review of the most effectual and economical geophysical techniques for characterising groundwater within New Zealand. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2013/38 90 p.
Abstract: In this report, we review both traditional and emerging geophysical techniques for aquifer characterisation (measuring volume and volume changes over time, and hydraulic properties), and discuss the relative merits of these techniques for New Zealand's (NZ) hydrogeological settings. This work has been performed within the SMART Aquifer Characterisation (SAC) programme. The applicability of various methods mainly within the fields of seismology, potential fields, and electromagnetics is discussed. For each method, we describeL the underlying principle(s), advantages and disadvantages highlighted by previous studies, how the method is expected to behave within NZ hydrogeological settings, and how economical the method will be give existing data within NZ and the cost of any new data collectin. To summarise, we identify the geophysical techniques whose combined information content holds the most promise for providing aquifer-scale resolution for groundwater characterisation on NZ aquifers with minimal financial outlay. (auth)