Hall, J.P.; Climo, M. 2015 Geothermal direct use in New Zealand : industrial heat park opportunities. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2014/17 31 p.
Abstract: Applications for direct use of geothermal heat energy for other than electricity generation include small domestic use, moderate commercial enterprise and large, industrial scale processes. Existing examples in New Zealand include timber and milk processing, geothermal tourism, balneology, and commercial and domestic heating. Direct geothermal energy use offers a proven energy alternative to fossil fuels for heat energy in regions endowed with geothermal resources. This report provides an introduction to the geothermal resources in New Zealand, and a comprehensive documentation of processes using geothermal heat both in New Zealand and internationally. These include forestry and wood processing, biofuels, agricultural production and processing, manufacturing, refrigeration, wastewater treatment and mineral processing. One approach to encouraging direct geothermal energy use is by reducing barriers to uptake by establishing geothermal, industrial/commercial scale heat parks. These parks share thermal energy distribution systems amongst multiple users, providing higher efficiencies and cost savings compared to individual heating systems. (auth)