Blake, D.M.; Wilson, G.; Stewart, C.; Craig, H.M.; Hayes, J.L.; Jenkins, S.F.; Wilson, T.M.; Horwell, C.J.; Andreastuti, S.; Daniswara, R.; Ferdiwijaya, D.; Leonard, G.S.; Hendrasto, M.; Cronin, S. 2015 The 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano, Indonesia : impacts on infrastructure, utilities, agriculture and health. Lower Hutt, N.Z.: GNS Science. GNS Science report 2015/15 x, 130 p.
Abstract: This report presents a summary of the impacts on agriculture, buildings, utilities and public health from the February 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano in East Java, Indonesia. The VEI 4 eruption ejected around 150 million m3 of pyroclastic material, creating a tephra plume some 20 km in height. Both proximal areas (i.e. the Kelud flanks extending ~30 km radially from the vent including the regencies of Kediri, Blitar and parts of Malang) and distal locations, with a particular focus on Yogyakarta Special Region Province (in Central Java, ~220 km west of Kelud), are considered. Information was collected immediately after the eruption through analysis of emergency management and other official reports, maps, news and media articles which were sourced online, and through a field visit and sampling conducted by a field team member in April 2014. The majority of the information presented in this report was obtained by an extended field team who conducted a comprehensive impact assessment during a field visit to the affected area between 08-23 September 2014. Other aspects covered in this report include the chronology of the February 2014 eruption including alert level status, social and cultural considerations, evacuation prior to and during the eruption, the official response, mitigation and recovery efforts to date, and expected future hazards from the eruption. Impacts on all sectors in the proximal area were severe with a range of hazards including ballistics, pyroclastic density currents, lahars, landslides and heavy tephra fall resulting in the destruction of some buildings, parts of the road transportation network, electricity and water supply networks, and erosion or burial of some agricultural land. Total economic loss for agriculture alone is estimated at up to Rp 377 billion (~NZ$ 39 million), which accounts for around a third of the loss for all sectors. Despite the explosivity of the eruption, there were only four fatalities, which were caused by indirect hazards. This is very low considering the high population (>200,000 people) who reside and work on Kelud’s flanks, and is largely attributed to the effective emergency planning and efficient response and evacuations that occurred. There are some concerns held by emergency service officials relating to how quickly evacuees returned to the area. However, impacts were substantially reduced in proximal areas by various proactive and mitigative measures implemented by residents, largely in response to the volcanic alert status being raised before the eruption, but also upon returning to their properties afterwards. (auth)